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Indigenous Research Methodologies and Ethics

Citing Knowledge Keepers and Elders

Unlike other personal communications, Knowledge keepers and Elders are cited both in-text and in the reference list. NorQuest College Library created templates for MLA and APA style. Also its important that when you approach an Elder or Knowledge Keeper for teachings you remember to follow cultural protocols. If you are unsure of what the cultural protocols are, please ask them ahead of time. 

Reference List

APA Style

  • Last name, First initial., Nation/Community. Location including Treaty Territory if applicable. Personal communication. Month Date, Year. 

MLA Style

  • Last name, First name., Nation/Community. Treaty Territory if applicable. City/Community they live in if applicable. Topic/subject of communication if applicable. Date Month Year. 
APA Style Cardinal, D., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. personal communication. April 4, 2004.
MLA Style Cardinal, Delores., Goodfish Lake Cree Nation. Treaty 6. Lives in Edmonton. Oral teaching. 4 April 2004.

In-Text Citation

APA Style "Delores Cardinal described the nature of the... (2004)." OR  "The nature of the place was... (Cardinal, 2004)."
MLA Style "Delores Cardinal described the nature of the..." OR "The nature of the place was... (Cardinal)."