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Grey Literature

Citing Grey Literature

Citing grey literature can be challenging, as it often appears in non-traditional formats. The APA style guide and Purdue University's OWL are two resources you can consult when citing grey literature. The following examples have been adapted from the APA Style Guide Blog and OWL's APA Guide

Government/International Publications: 

      Author, A /Name of Government body. Title Report/Subtitle. (Report number).  Retrieved from URL

      Newspaper Articles:

      Author A. (Year, Month, Day). Title of Article. Title of Publication. Retrieved from homepage of newspaper URL 


Author/Publisher. (Last update or copyright date; if not known, put n.d.).  Title of specific webpage.  Retrieved from URL. 

OR, if no author/publisher listed

Title of Page (last update/copyright/n.d.) retrieved from URL. 

Social Media Posts (Twitter):

 Author, A. [username]. (Year, Month, Day). Body of Tweet. [Tweet]. Retrieved from URL. 

Social Media Posts (Facebook):

Author, A./Group Author. (Year, Month, Day). Title/Caption/First 40 characters of post [Facebook Status Update]. Retrieved from URL

Presentations/Conference Talks:

Contributor, A. (year, month). Title. Title of Conference/Symposium. Talk presented at name of organization/conference, City, Country. 

Chapter/Selection of a Web Document or E-Book:

Author, A. (Date). Title of Chapter/Section. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from URL.  

Thesis/Dissertation from Database

Author, A. (Date) Title of Thesis/Dissertation. Retrieved from database. (Thesis code number) 

Online Lecture/Lecture Slides

Author, A. Title of Lecture [pdf document]. Retrieved from URL. 


Contributor, A. (year, month, day). Podcast Episode Title. Podcast Name. Podcast retrieved from URL.