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Citation Help

What is a citation?

It is expected that you use other experts' and scholars' ideas and even quotations in your writing; however, you must explain where you got this information by using citations. A citation is the information about a source that you used. Failing to cite is plagiarism. The goal of citation is to point the reader back to the original source of the information. Citations also inform your professor that you have used suitable sources of information in your work. 

When to cite?

Whenever you are presenting words, ideas, images, or data from someone other than yourself, include a citation for that work. You must also include a citation when paraphrasing or summarizing, as the idea is still coming from another source.

Where to cite?

You will need to cite each source that you used twice:  The In- text citation is a short citation in the text of your paper at the place where you quote or paraphrase someone else's work. The second is the full citation at the end of the document in the references/ bibliography. 

Citation Styles

Citing sources you used in your work is an important practice. The Library offers various books, websites and tools to help you properly cite sources.

Useful Websites

Citation Guides

MLA Handbook [8th Ed.]

Also visit:

Scientific Style and Format


Zotero is an open access reference management software. Using it you can collect, organize, cite, format your references, and share your research sources. Download it on the Zotero site and register for an account. Zotero is easy to use; however, it can be complicated to install so you may want guidance.


For an instruction session on installing and using Zotero for you or a class, contact one of the liaison librarians:

Cathy Chisholm (School of Education and Health) at 902.563.1993

Jasmine Hoover (School of Science and Technology) at 902.563.1231

Jason Lee (School of Arts and Social Sciences, Unama’ki College) at 902.563.1675

Laura Syms (Shannon School of Business) at 902.563.1994


Instructional Videos and Downloads: