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APA for Business

This guide provides examples of APA citation for business resources accessed through CBU Library.

Publication Types: Examples

To the left are links to examples for citing published standard publication types.

Generally, the basics of an APA reference are Who[Author]; When[Date]; What[Title]; Where. For further information and more examples and guidance, consult the sources on the APA Style: Basics and Tools page.

 

Annual Reports

Standard Format:

Name of Company. (Year). Name of Company. Annual Report. 

Example

Apple. (2015). Apple. Annual Report. 

Articles

Standard Format:

The following is a standard format for articles regardless if they are found on a publisher's site, in a database, etc. PLEASE NOTE: APA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year of publication). Title of article: Subtitle if applicable.Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), start page – end page. 

Examples:

Journal Article:

Santos, F. M. (2012). A positive theory of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 335-351.

Newspaper Article:

Middleton, D. (2009, October 15). M.B.A.s seek social change. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition. p. B7.

Journal Article with DOI[Digital Object Identifier]

Smith, B., Kistruck, G., & Cannatelli, B. (2016). The impact of moral intensity and desire for control on scaling decisions in social entrepreneurship. Journal Of Business Ethics, 133(4), 677-689. doi:10.1007/s10551-014-2447-6.

Blogs

Standard Format

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day of post). Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from url.

 

Books

Standard Format

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly..

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Editor, A.A. , Ed. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

No author/editor

Title: Capital letter also for subtitle.(Year of publication) Location: Publisher.

E-book?  Essentially the same as print

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book. edition. City of Publication, State: Publisher. (Looks the same as print if retrieved from a database such as Ebsco)

 Author, A. A.. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book. edition. Retrieved from home URL for authoritative website ie Gutenberg.

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book. edition. DOI[Digital Object Identifier] number.

 

Case Studies

Standard Format

If the case stands on its own, like a book, it is referenced like a book. If the case is found in a journal, cite the case as a journal article. PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Examples

Boris Groysberg, B., Bell, D., Gordon, I. & Decker, S. (2014) Should a female director "tone it down"?  HBS No. 79100020. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.

Huggins, K., Burger, J., Pretorius, M., & Overby, J. (2016). Two-a-day: a choice of target market selection of apple export business. Business Case Journal, 23(2).

 

 

Caselaw

Standard Format

The Canadian Legal Research and Writing Guide provides general rules on citing Canadian cases and secondary sources and gives examples based on the 7th edition of the Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (the McGill Guide), as adapted by the British Columbia Court of Appeal in Citation of Authorities (Civil & Criminal Practice Directive, 30 May 2013).  

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  

 

Chapter in a Book

Standard Format

Author, A. A. (Year of Publication). Title of chapter or article. In Editor #1 A. A. Last Name, & Editor #2 A. A. Last Name (Eds.), Title of book: Subtitle of book (pp. Pages). Place of Publication: Publisher. 

Company/Industry/Market Research Reports and Country Profiles in Databases

Standard Format: 

Corporate Author. (date). Title of work [Type of report]. Retrieved date from Name of Database/ Retrieved from url, if not in database.  PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Examples for various databases

EIU ViewsWire (2016, Dec 01).  Egypt: Political structure.[Country profile].  Retrieved  Nov. 28, 2016 from ABI Global 

GlobalData. (2016, March). Apple: Financial and strategic analysis review. Retrieved March 15, 2016 from Business Insights Global.  

BMI Research. (2016, July). Canada Oil & Gas Report (Industry profile). Retrieved Dec. 5, 2016 from Business Source Premier.

Example from originating site

World Economic Forum. (2015). Travel and tourism competitiveness report. Retrieved from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/TT15/WEF_Global_Travel&Tourism_Report_2015.pdf

Data and Statistics

Standard Format

Author/Rightsholder. (Date). Title of data set (Version number) [Description of form]. Retrieved from url/database

Some providers provide guides and references for citing their data and statistics on their site.   If you are provided with this option, use the source's preferred citation.  PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Examples

1. Eikon 

a. Where Eikon is the author of the item
Eikon. (2016, December 7) Exxon Mobil - VP & Gen. Tax Counsel James Spellings reports open market sale of 15,678 common shares [Reuters Investor Briefs]. Retrieved from Eikon. 

b. Where Eikon hosts material generated by a company
Exxon Mobil (2016) Exxon Mobil [Financial Statements] .Retrieved from Eikon.

 2. International Organizations

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2013) Youth literacy rate, population 15-24 years, both sexes (%). Retrieved from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.ADT.1524.LT.ZS?end=2010&start=1990&view=chart

3.SiteWise
Recommended APA format for referencing SiteWise databases:

a. 2016 Census
Statistics Canada. 2016 Census of Canada: Profile Data for Community A, Community B, Community C. Ottawa, Canada. Statistics Canada [producer]; Tetrad Computer Applications, Vancouver, BC [distributor]. Available from SiteWise.

b. 2019 EAG Data & 2016 Census database
2019 EAG & 2016 Census Profile Data for Community A, Community B, Community C. Toronto, Canada. Environics Analytics[producer]; Tetrad Computer Applications, Vancouver, BC [distributor]. Available from SiteWise.

 

Government Documents

Canadian government documents include departmental reports, parliamentary debates, standing committees etc. Unfortunately, the APA Manual does not cover these documents, however, Simon Fraser University Library has produed a great online guide for citing Canadian Government Documents

Podcasts

Standard Format

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Lastname, F.M. (Role). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast.  [audio/video podcast].  Retrieved from url

Example

Smith, J.A. (Producer). (2016, November 15). My red socks [audio podcast]. Retrieved from www.whataday.com

 

Social Media

Standard Format

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Author, A.A. [social media identifier] (Date) title of item expressed in first words of item. [Content form i.e tweet, status update]. Retrieved from url 

Example

PewResearch Global (@pewglobal) (2016, December 13). There are large gaps in education levels around the world [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/pewglobal/status/808691176329068544?lang=en

 

Statutes and Regulations

Standard Format

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  

The Canadian Legal Research and Writing Guide provides links and resources for Canadian statutory citation and research.

Websites

Standard Format

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.  This software cannot display references formatted properly.

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Retrieved from url

No author given?

Title of article. (Year, Month Day Published). Retrieved from url

No date given?

Author, A.A. (n.d.). Title of article. Retrieved from url

Note that the title is not italicized for website references

CBU Specific Resources: Examples

Some e-resources have elements not found in standard publication types, therefore confusion can occur and interpretation of APA rules is sometimes necessary, especially with data sources.  Below are resources available from CBU where interpretation has been provided, or the source itself has provided their preferred citation style.

PLEASE NOTEAPA references should be double-spaced with hanging indentation.