[...] it offers a unique and very detailed perspective on the last three centuries of the Mi’kmaq Native American history. Presented chronologically, this Native American author offsets the perception within North American history that these First Nations peoples were not subjected to violence inflicted by European and Euro-American colonists. This book recounts the history of the Mi’kmaq, the fight with the colonists for the land which was rightfully theirs, the various treaties which were created and broken, and the more recent state of Native American affairs within the nineteenth and twentieth century.
Ch 2. The Legacy of Forced Assimilative Education for Indigenous Peoples
Mi’kmaw Education: Roots and Routes
Blending Mi’kmaw knowledge with Catholic knowledge
Nova Scotia’s Intervention in Mi’kmaw Education
Creating the Indigenous Renaissance
Establishing Transformative Principles in UN Law
Mi’kmaw Reform of Education
The Blessed New Stories
Animating Ethical Trans-Systemic Education Systems
Generating an Ethical Space for Decolonization
Decolonizing the Humanities
Confronting and Eliminating Racism
The Confrontation with Racism
Cognitive Construction of Racism
Manifestation of Hate Ideologies
Respecting Aboriginal Languages in Education Systems
Aboriginal Language Learners
The Language Crisis and Planning for Change
Stabilizing Aboriginal Languages: The Challenge
Complexity and Complementarity in Finding Solutions
Ch 8. Displacing Cognitive Imperialism
Recommendations for Constitutional Reconciliation of Education
Recommendations for Constitutional Reconciliation
Possibilities of Educational Transformations
Recognizing and Affirming the Learning Spirit
Postcolonial Post-Secondary Education
Author : Marie Battiste, Professor of Educational Foundations, founder and first Academic Director, Aboriginal Education Research Centre, University of Saskatchewan, is a Mi’kmaw scholar, knowledge keeper, and educator from Potlotek First Nation, Nova Scotia.
This book includes information on "Micmac": for example, Chapter 11 Micmac and Montagnais versus Beothuk: The Final Phase
The historical ethnography of the Micmac of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries : dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Anthropology in the Graduate Division of the University of C
by Bernard Hoffman
Publication Date: 1955
Ch 1. Introduction Ch 2. History of Acadia and the Micmac Ch 3. Micmac tribal identity and affiliations Ch 4. Micmac ecology Ch 5. The Life of the individual Ch 6. The Micmac and the Supernatural Ch 7. Social life
George Paul's YouTube page also provides music, such as George Paul's Honor Song:
"After I fasted in Kootenay Plains Alberta I told my story of how I cried for my people because we were losing our ways, and how I could help restore our spirit through this song because thats what we need to do. Honor and respect ourselves as a people and help one another as the creator has placed us upon mother earth. We must strive for peace and understanding for a spiritual way."
According to the Mi'kmaq Spirit website, Kepmite'tmnej, "the Mi'kmaw Honour Song, was received in the sweatlodge by George Paul in the 1980s". George Paul, a singer-songwriter from the Metepenagiag First Nation (Red Bank), New Brunswick, "has been involved with the Traditional Movement in reviving Mi'kmaw songs, chants, and ceremonies for over thirty years." The Mi'kmaw Honour Song "features a combination of meaningful text in Mi'kmaq and vocables, and it is generally repeated four times."
Introduction – Marie Battiste
Narrating Mi’kmaw Treaties: Linking the Past to the Future
1. Stephen J. Augustine
Negotiating for Life and Survival
2. Pamela Palmater
My Tribe, My Heirs and Their Heirs Forever:
Living Mi’kmaw Treaties
3. Fred Metallic
Treaty and Mi’gmewey
4. Patrick J. Augustine
5. Jaime Battiste
Treaty Denied: The 1928 Trial of Grand Chief Gabriel Sylliboy
6. Stuart Killen
Memories of an ex-Indian Agent
7. James [Sa’kej] Youngblood Henderson
Alexander Denny and the Treaty Imperative
8. Russel Barsh
The Personality of a Nation
Drawing on archaeological, ethnographic, and archival fieldwork conducted with the Pictou Landing First Nation—one of thirteen Mi’kmaw communities in Nova Scotia—Lelièvre argues that, for the British Crown and the Catholic Church, mobility has been required not only for the settlement of the colony but also for the management and conversion of the Mi’kmaq. For the Mi’kmaq, their continued mobility has served as a demonstration of sovereignty over their ancestral lands and waters despite the encroachment of European settlers.
1. The Sedentarist Ideology
2. Clam Beds and Arrowheads: An Indigenous Archaeography of Maligomish
3. Settled but Not Sedentary: Mi'kmaw Dwelling on Maligomish and Beyond
4. Pilgrimage and Propagation: The Mission of Mi'kmaq Catholicism
In Indian School Road, journalist Chris Benjamin tackles the controversial and tragic history of the Shubenacadie Indian Residential School, its predecessors, and its lasting effects, giving voice to multiple perspectives for the first time. Benjamin integrates research, interviews, and testimonies to guide readers through the varied experiences of students, principals, and teachers over the school’s nearly forty years of operation (1930–1967) and beyond. Exposing the raw wounds of Truth and Reconciliation as well as the struggle for an inclusive Mi’kmaw education system, Indian School Road is a comprehensive and compassionate narrative history of the school that uneducated hundreds of Aboriginal children.
Ch 1. Before Shubenacadie Ch 2. The Shubenacadie Indian Residential School Ch 3. One Year From Another Ch 4. After Shubenacadie
This book seeks to explore historical changes in the lifeworld of the Mi'kmaq Indians of Eastern Canada. The Mi'kmaq culture hero Kluskap serves as a key persona in discussing issues such as traditions, changing conceptions of land, and human-environmental relations.
Author: Anne-Christine Hornborg is Professor in History of Religions in the Centre for Theology and Religious Studies at Lund University, Sweden
In the 1880s, through an amendment to the Indian Act of 1876, the government of Canada began to require all Aboriginal children to attend schools administered by churches. Separating these children from their families, removing them from their communities and destroying Aboriginal culture by denying them the right to speak Indigenous languages and perform native spiritual ceremonies, these residential schools were explicitly developed to assimilate Aboriginal peoples into Canadian culture and erase their existence as a people. Daring to break the code of silence imposed on Aboriginal students, residential school survivor Isabelle Knockwood offers the firsthand experiences of forty-two survivors of the Shubenacadie Indian Residential School. In this newly updated fourth edition, Knockwood speaks to twenty-one survivors of the Shubenacadie Indian Residential School about their reaction to the apology by the Canadian government in 2008. Is it now possible to move forward?
Author : Isabelle Knockwood, born in Wolfville, Nova Scotia, attended the Indian Residential School in Shubenacadie from 1936 to 1947. She is the mother of six children and has fourteen grandchildren. At the age of fifty-eight, she enrolled at Saint Mary’s University n Halifax seeking a major in Anthropology and a minor in English; she graduated in 1992. She now lives at the Indian Brook Reserve, Nova Scotia. At a special Sunrise Ceremony at Indian Brook, Isabelle was given her Spirit name, Maqmikewe’skw, which means Mother Earth.
This lavishly-illustrated book tells a story through words and images that has never before been told, not in any single book. The focus is entirely on the Mi’kmaq of the Island, an island which for thousands of years has been known to the Mi’kmaq and their ancestors as Epekwitk. That name means “cradle on the sea” and no more poetic description of PEI has ever been penned. The story of the PEI Mi’kmaq is one of adaptation and perseverance across countless generations in the face of pervasive change.
The Native Peoples of Atlantic Canada: A History of Indian-European Relations contains a selection of seventeen original writings, essays, and letters about the Indigenous Peoples of eastern Canada. This includes the Beothuck, the Mi'kmaq, and the Malecite. The collection begins with an excerpt from a Norse saga about Vinland, and includes reports about British Indian policy, M. H. Perley's Report on the Indians of New Brunswick, a report on housing, and an essay about time and institutional conflict.
Issues of identity figure prominently in Native North American communities, mediating their histories, traditions, culture, and status. This is certainly true of the Mi’kmaw people of Nova Scotia, whose lives on reserves create highly complex economic, social, political, and spiritual realities. This ethnography investigates identity construction and negotiations among the Mi’kmaq, as well as the role of identity dynamics in Mi’kmaw social relationships on and off the reserve. Featuring direct testimonies from over sixty individuals, this work offers a vivid firsthand perspective on contemporary Mi’kmaw reserve life.
Author : Simone Poliandri is an assistant professor of anthropology at Framingham State University.
Introduction: A Mi’kmaq Woman Ch 1. Legislated Identity: Control, Division, and Assimilation Ch 2. The Right to Determine Citizenship Ch 3. The Right to Belong: Charter Equality for Non-Status Indians Ch 4. Band Membership vs. Self-Government Citizenship Conclusion: Beyond Blood
Author: Dr. Pamela Palmater is a Mi’kmaq lawyer from the Eel River Bar First Nation in northern New Brunswick.
Indigenous Nationhood is a selection of blog posts by well-known lawyer, activist and academic Pamela Palmater. Palmater offers critical legal and political commentary and analysis on legislation, Aboriginal rights, Canadian politics, First Nations politics and social issues such as murdered and missing Indigenous women, poverty, economics, identity and culture.
Author : Pamela Palmater is Mi’kmaq from the Eel River Bar First Nation in northern New Brunswick. She is an associate professor and chair in Indigenous governance at Ryerson University.
This is a story about two stories and their travels through the written record. The written part begins in the mid-nineteenth century, when Silas T. Rand, a Baptist clergyman from Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, took as his task the translation of the Bible into Mi’kmaq – the language of the indigenous communities in the region. [...] The Stone Canoe makes a significant contribution to our understanding of Mi’kmaq storytelling and indigenous Canadian literature.
Chronicled here are 500 years of the complex dynamics of Mi'kmaq culture. This text explores the group as a tribal nation-their ordeals in the face of colonialism and their current struggle for self-determination and cultural revitalization.
Author: Harald E.L. Prins is Distinguished Professor of Anthropology at Kansas State University.
Finding Kluskap brings together years of historical research and learning among Mi’kmaw peoples on Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. The author’s long-term relationship with Mi’kmaw friends and colleagues provides a unique vantage point for scholarship, one shaped not only by personal relationships but also by the cultural, intellectual, and historical situations that inform postcolonial peoples. The picture that emerges when Saint Anne, Kluskap, and the mission are considered in concert with one another is one of the sacred life as a site of adjudication for both the meaning and efficacy of religion—and the impact of modern history on contemporary indigenous religion.
Author : Jennifer Reid is Professor of Religion at the University of Maine at Farmington.
From the time of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, people of British origin have shared the area of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, traditionally called Acadia, with Eastern Canada's Algonkian-speaking peoples, the Mi'kmaq. This historical analysis of colonial Acadia from the perspective of symbolic and mythic existence will be useful to those interested in Canadian history, native Canadian history, religion in Canada, and history of religion.
In 1927, Gabriel Sylliboy, the Grand Chief of the Mi'kmaw of Atlantic Canada, was charged with trapping muskrats out of season. At appeal in July 1928, Sylliboy and five other men recalled conversations with parents, grandparents, and community members to explain how they understood a treaty their people had signed with the British in 1752. Using this testimony as a starting point, William Wicken traces Mi'kmaw memories of the treaty, arguing that as colonization altered Mi'kmaw society, community interpretations of the treaty changed as well
Author: William Wicken is an associate professor in the department of history at York University.
The Mi'kmaq people have been living in what is now Atlantic Canada for two thousand years or more, yet written history has largely ignored them, presenting them merely as a homogeneous mass or as statistics. Ruth Holmes Whitehead, tries to redress that omission by restoring to the collective memory a true sense of the Mi'kmaq. In this rich collection, oral and written, Mi'kmaq accounts juxtapose contemporary European perceptions of native peoples, as documented in letters, journals, court cases, and much more. Above all, The Old Man Told Us is a historical jigsaw puzzle, a display of fragments of broken mirror in which one can capture moments in the lives of particular people. It is a book of excerpts from whatever scattered documentation has survived over the centuries.
In 1930 and 1931, anthropologist Frederick Johnson, then 27 years old, visited seven Mi'kmaw communities in Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. During these visits he took about 200 photographs that are the core of this book. The Confederacy of Mainland Mi'kmaq and the Robert S. Peabody Museum of Archeology have worked together to reproduce Johnson's original images and to create a photographic history of the 20th century Mi'kmaw experience.
Mi’kmaq Hieroglyphic Prayers is a collection of sacred readings (prayers, narratives, and liturgies) represented by hieroglyphs developed from pictographic symbols used by the Mi’kmaq Indians of Atlantic Canada before European contact, and later expanded by French missionaries. This volume contains some of the most important texts in native religious life, such as “The Passion of our Lord” and “The Sacraments,” as well as common prayers for everyday recitation. Transliterations in Mi’kmaq and translations in English accompany the hieroglyphic text.
This timely book offers support for Aboriginal claims at a time when Aboriginal peoples and governments across Canada are attempting to come to terms with the issue of self-governance. It will not only appeal to historians of the Maritimes and Aboriginal-state relations in Canada but also to students and scholars of Native studies, political science, and law.
Author: Dr. Martha Walls teaches courses in Women’s, First Nations, and Canadian history at Mount Saint Vincent University.
Niniskamijinaqik / Ancestral Images includes 94 compelling pieces of art and photography, chosen from more than a thousand extant portraits in different media, that show the Mi’kmaw people. Each image is an entry point to deeply personal history, a small moment or single person transformed into vivid immediacy for the reader.
In Stories from the Six Worlds, it is their stories, passed down by word of mouth, that best preserve and present Mi’kmaw culture. For in their tales, the People themselves speak about their world and give us glimpses of how their universe manifests, in all its fascinating otherness. Mi’kmaw stories have many levels: entertainment, instruction, warnings. Drawing on various sources, Ruth Holmes Whitehead retells the tales in a voice close to that of the original storytellers.
The Language of this Land, Mi’kma’ki is an exploration of Mi’kmaw world view as expressed in language, legends, song and dance. Using imagery as codes, these include not only place names and geologic history, but act as maps of the landscape. Sable and Francis illustrate the fluid nature of reality inherent in its expression – its embodiment in networks of relationships with the landscape integral to the cultural psyche and spirituality of the Mi’kmaq.
The book urges an agenda of restoration within a multi-disciplinary context for human dignity and the collective dignity of Mi’kmaw peoples. It is about generating a vision of society and education where knowledge systems and languages are reinforced, not diluted, where they can respectfully gather together without resembling each other, and where peoples can participate in the cultural life of a society, education and their community.